The invention discloses a multi-probe friction wear test and in-situ morphology detection system in vacuum. The system includes a main body and an external manual driving device; the main body includes a cavity upper cover, a light window top cover mounted in the cavity upper cover and for sealing, and multiple probe components installed in the upper cover of the cavity. The system can realize switch of SPM probes with different functions, complete tribological test and in-situ morphology detection in high vacuum environment one after another, and reach high in-situ localization accuracy. The probe change does not need opening of the cavity, so as to ensure that the experimental sample is not interference by the external factors, and that the experiment results are more authentic. Besides, the system saves the previous calibration adjustment time for experiment equipment, and improves the efficiency.